1. INTRODUZIONE

1.      Nella stesura del volume sono stati ripresi, aggiornati e rielaborati spunti precedentemente presenti in altre opere degli autori, in particolare Lughi (2010; 2012; 2013) e Russo Suppini (Toselli et al., 2005), nonché i risultati della ricerca DIGILINE condotta nel 2012 dai due autori per il Polo di Innovazione per la Creatività Digitale e la Multimedialità della Regione Piemonte. Il testo è stato concepito ed elaborato insieme dai due autori, tuttavia per quanto riguarda la stesura, a Giulio Lughi vanno attribuiti i cap. 1, 2, 3, 4 e i par. 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4; ad Alessandra Russo Suppini il cap. 5 e il par. 6.5. I numerosi rimandi a siti web che appaiono nelle note sono stati controllati fino al 30 novembre 2014, e per comodità del lettore sono disponibili anche come link cliccabili alla pagina https://www.giuliolughi.it/digitalcreativity, dove saranno disponibili approfondimenti e aggiornamenti sul tema.

2.       http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/ndcr20/current

3.       http://www.tandfonline.com/action/aboutThisJournal?show=aimsScope&journalCode=ndcr20 

4.      Digital Creativity is a major peer-reviewed journal at the intersection of the creative arts and digital technologies. It publishes articles of interest to those involved in the practical task and theoretical aspects of making or using digital media in creative contexts. By the term ‘creative arts’ we include such disci-plines as fine art, graphic design, illustration, photography, printmaking, sculp-ture, 3D design, interaction design, product design, textile and fashion design, film making, animation, games design, music, dance, drama, creative writing, poetry, interior design, architecture, and urban design. [T.d.A.]

5.       A sudden inspiration. A bright idea. A severe outburst of excitement, often as a result of a transitory disturbance of cerebral activity. A sudden mental aberration. An excitable state, exhilaration, elevation, intoxication, abandon, thrill, transport, ecstasy, fever, whirl, warmth, ferment, stew, turbulence, boisterousness, outburst, outbreak, explosion, commotion, hysterics, madness. [T.d.A.]

6.       Creativity is marked by the ability or power to create, to bring into existence, to invest with a new form, to produce through imaginative skill, to make or bring into existence something new. See Also: ability, cleverness, conception, design, excogitation, fecundity, flight, fruitfulness, genius, imagination, imaginativeness, ingeniousness, ingenuity, innovation, invention, inventiveness, power, vision, wizardry. [T.d.A.]

7.       Accanto al libro di Annamaria Testa, va senz’altro citato il suo sito web Nuovo e Utile. Teorie e pratiche della creatività (http://nuovoeutile.it/).

8.       http://phillipstearns.wordpress.com/glitch-art-resources/

9.       http://mashable.com/2014/01/03/google-maps-glitch-art/

10.    http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/exhibitions/postmodernism/about-the-exhibition/

11.    Creativity is just connecting things. [T.d.A.]

12.    http://www.creativereview.co.uk/home

13.    http://creativity-online.com/work/world-design-capital-2012-helsinki-kauko/26248

14.    http://is.pearson.it/multimedia/video-intervista-a-pietro-ratti/

15.    http://senseable.mit.edu/

16.    http://www.ted.com/talks/mihaly_csikszentmihalyi_on_flow.html

17.    www.creativedu.org/cce/2013/home.aspx

18.    http://www.onbeing.org/program/creativity-and-everyday-brain/1879

 

2. INNOVAZIONE E CREATIVITÀ

1.       http://shop.danesemilano.com/?lang=it&eomPrd=139

2.       http://2009.festivaldellacreativita.it/

3.       Uno stimolo in questo senso viene dal concetto di lean production (Womack et al., 1990), il cambio di paradigma avviato nel sistema produttivo giapponese dalla casa automo-bilistica Toyota che, rinunciando ai presupposti della produzione di massa fordista, introduce un punto di vista “dal basso”, partendo dalla soddifazione del cliente e attivando un sistema di flussi di gestione molto più agili e snelli. Con la tipica capacità virale delle formule di successo, la lean production ha generato e continua a generare una serie di estensioni (lean thinking, lean manufacturing, lean  innova-tion, lean organization, lean education, ecc.) la cui caratteristica comune è comunque la ri-nuncia alla rigidità “industriale” per adottare forme di flessibilità, adattabilità, leggerezza, capacità di vedere soluzioni nuove ed impreviste, apertura ai contributi creativi dei soggetti coinvolti nel processo.

4.       http://www.repubblica.it/online/internet/maffes/maffes/maffes.html

 

3. STORIA DELLA CREATIVITÀ  DIGITALE

  1. http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/ndcr20/current
  2. The starting point was a number of diverse disciplines with interests in, and making contributions to, the field. These included all the creative arts plus computer science (particulary human-computer interaction), partecipatory de-sign, education and pedagogy, cultural studies and, more generally, contempo-rary ideas such as may be found in cognitive science, artificial intelligence and elsewhere. [T.d.A.]
  3. http://noemalab.eu/
  4. http://www.c-lab.co.uk/home.html
  5. http://www.ciant.cz/
  6. http://kiblix.org/kiblix2012/softcontrol/  
  7. www.ekac.org  
  8. http://markamerika.com/  
  9. http://www.ljudmila.org/%7Evuk/
  10. http://www.leapknecht.de; http://antitesi-associazione.blogspot.it/; http://www.toshare.it/; http://www.zkm.de/
  11. http://www.behance.net/; http://www.deviantart.com/; http://www.saatchionline.com/; http://www.digitalartsonline.co.uk/  
  12. http://www.getty.edu/research/tools/index.html  
  13. https://www.invisibilia.net  
  14. http://www.edueda.net/index.php?title=EduEDA_-_The_EDUcational_Encyclopedia_of_Digital_Arts  
  15. http://rhizome.org/  
  16. http://www.docam.ca/en.html
  17. http://www.youtube.com/yt/creators/index.html
  18. Find tools and programs to help you create better content, build fan bases, and make more money. [T.d.A.]
  19. http://www.adobe.com/it/products/creativecloud.html
  20. Settori di attività sono ad esempio: 3D Printing & Imaging; Abbigliamento smart & Tessuti digitali; App & Digital Arduino; Chimica e materie plastiche; Circuit bending & Upcycling; Computer harware & software; Design; Elettronica ed elettrotecnica; Gadget; Idrogeno & Celle a combustibile; Ingegneria; Lego; Meccanica & Meccatronica; Mobilità sostenibile & Veicoli elettrici; Radio & Radiantismo; Robotica; Scienze; Sostenibilità & Energie alternative; Video & Movie; Wireless electricity.
  21. http://www.makersitaly.it/; http://www.worldwiderome.it/; http://arthackday.net/319scholes/ 
  22. http://www.arduino.cc/ 
  23. http://www.emergingseries.net/; http://www.romawebfest.it/edizione-2014/web-serie-in-concorso-2014/
  24. http://simonearcagni.nova100.ilsole24ore.com/2014/09/15/la-webserie-come-liberta-creativa/
  25. http://www.italianinnovation.it/article.560/steve-jobs-innovatore-mode-tecnologie.html
  26. It is not accidental that the intellectuals who have most systematically written about software’s roles in society and culture so far all either have programmed themselves or have been systematically involved in cultural projects which centrally involve writing of new software. [T.d.A.]
  27. http://lab.softwarestudies.com/
  28. That is, we think of software as a layer that permeates all areas of contemporary socie-ties. Therefore, if we want to understand contemporary techniques of control, communication, representation, simulation, analysis, decision-making, memory, vision, writing, and interaction, our analysis can’t be complete until we consider this software layer. This is why we are convinced that “software studies” is necessary. [T.d.A.]
  29. ... their fundamental techniques, working methods, and ways of representation and ex-pression. United within the common software environment, the languages of cinematography, animation, computer animation, special effects, graphic design, and typography have come to form a new metalanguage. [T.d.A.]
  30. http://computationalculture.net/  
  31. The journal’s primary aim is to examine the ways in which software undergirds and formulates contemporary life. Computational processes and systems not only enable con-temporary forms of work and play and the management of emotional life but also drive the unfolding of new events that constitute political, social and ontological domains. [T.d.A.]
  32. ... a developing form of literacy... that matches an understanding of computational processes with those traditionally bound within the arts, humanities, and social sciences but also in more informal or practical modes of knowledge such as hacking and art. [T.d.A.]
  33. http://www.computationalcreativity.net/  
  34. http://www.processing.org/; http://scratch.mit.edu/
  35. http://www.code.org/  
  36. http://lab.softwarestudies.com/2012/10/big-data-visualization-and-digital.html; http://lab.softwarestudies.com/2008/09/cultural-analytics.html
  37. http://www.microsoft.com/italy/technolandia/windows.aspx; https://marketplace.firefox.com/
  38. http://www.kultur-kreativ-wirtschaft.de/ 
  39. http://www.creative-germany.travel/it/pagina-iniziale/

 

4. TEORIE PER LA CREATIVITÀ  DIGITALE

  1. Come esempio di come sia utilizzato come termine ombrello, alla Creatività Digitale viene intitolato nel 2012 il "FORUM SULLA PROPRIETÀ INTELLETTUALE: l’idea, la sua tutela, il suo sviluppo", tenuto a Milano, che però di fatto tratta esclusivamente gli aspetti legali dell’animazione digitale: http://www.mi.camcom.it/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=c8bc02ed-2cdd-4377-ab19-720b547e0c2e&groupId=10157
  2. http://www.victorianweb.org/  
  3. http://www.cyberartsweb.org/cpace/   
  4. http://www.postcolonialweb.org/  
  5. Si veda la ricerca su Teen Content Creators and Consumers, condotta nel 2005 da Pew Internet & American Life Project: http://www.pewinternet.org/files/old-media/Files/Reports/2005/PIP_Teens_Content_Creation.pdf.pdf 
  6. Temi affrontati nel convegno “Media City. New spaces, new aesthetics” tenuto a Milano nel 2012: http://www.triennale.org/it/calendario/calendario-eventi-list/1115-media-city-new-spaces-new-aesthetics  
  7. http://www.urbanexperience.it/groups/format-di-performing-media-per-lurban-experience/forum/topic/walk-show/  
  8. http://simonearcagni.nova100.ilsole24ore.com/2013/01/secret-cinema-unesperienza-cinematografica-davvero-realsitica.html
  9. Lo Smithsonian American Art Museum ha dedicato nell’estate 2012 una grande mostra a “The Art of Video Games", circolata in dieci città americane e accompagnata da una ingente serie di manifestazioni collaterali: http://americanart.si.edu/exhibitions/archive/2012/games/. Inoltre nel novembre 2012 il MoMA ha annunciato l’acquisto di 14 classici del videogame (Pac-MAn, Tetris, Sim City, Myst, ecc.) come inizio di una nuova sezione nelle collezioni di opere d’arte: http://www.moma.org/explore/inside_out/2012/11/29/video-games-14-in-the-collection-for-starters
  10. http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/projects/illumiroom/  
  11. http://www.repubblica.it/tecnologia/2012/11/04/news/i_videogiochi_sempre_pi_cinema_megaproduzioni_per_i_titoli_di_natale-45727431/?ref=HRERO-1  
  12. http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=R6c1STmvNJc  
  13. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Q25-S7jzgs&feature=relmfu  
  14. The free culture that I defend in this book is a balance between anarchy and control. A free culture, like a free market, is filled with property. It is filled with rules of property and contract that get enforced by the state. But just as a free market is perverted if its property becomes feudal, so too can a free culture be queered by extremism in the property rights that define it. That is what I fear about our culture today. [T.d.A.]
  15. http://www.remixthebook.com/  
  16. http://remixtheory.net/  
  17. http://thepiratebayitalia.com/  
  18. http://www.esa.int/ita/ESA_in_your_country/Italy/ESA_testa_la_stampa_in_3D_per_costruire_una_base_lunare_con_l_aiuto_di_una_tecnologia_italiana  
  19. Seen from the point of view of media history, “computer multimedia” is certainly a development of fundamental importance. Previously “multimedia documents” combining multiple media were static and/or not interactive: for instance, medieval illustrated manuscripts, sacred architecture, or twentieth century cinema, which combined live action, music, voice and titles. But co-existence of multiple media types within a single document or an application is only one of the new developments enabled by simulation of all these media in a computer. In putting forward the term hybrid media I want to draw attention to another, equally fundamental development that, in contrast to “multimedia”, so far did not receive a name. [T.d.A.]
  20. For what gets remixed today is not only content from different media but also their fundamental techniques, working methods, and ways of representation and expression. United within the common software environment, the languages of cinematography, animation, computer animation, special effects, graphic design, and typography have come to form a new metalanguage. A work produced in this new metalanguage can use all the techniques, or any subset of these techniques, that were previously unique to these different media. [T.d.A.]
  21. http://www.gasta.org/  
  22. http://www.mashrome.org/

 

5. PRODOTTI DELLA CREATIVITÀ  DIGITALE

  1. http://www.artisopensource.net/cure/
  2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R6c1STmvNJc
  3. Sveglie che suonano prima dell’orario previsto in caso di traffico; termostati digitali programmabili a distanza; vasi per le piante che avvisano quando c’è bisogno di innaffiare; frigoriferi che fanno l’elenco della spesa; ecc.
  4. http://socialhardware.net/  
  5. http://www.cirma.unito.it/vep/
  6. http://benfry.com/anemone/movie/
  7. http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2012/inventingabstraction/?page=connections
  8. www.ingress.com
  9. The world around you is not what it seems. Ingress. The game. It’s happening all around you. They aren’t coming. They’re already here. [T.d.A.]
  10. synapse: http://vimeo.com/87069896
  11. http://mogees.co.uk
  12. http://blogs.forrester.com/brian_hopkins/13-02-07-forresters_top_15_emerging_technologies_to_watch_now_to_2018; http://www.gartner.com/technology/research/top-10-technology-trends/

 

6. ISTITUZIONI DELLA CREATIVITÀ  DIGITALE

  1. http://www.iminds.be/en/about-us
  2. http://www.statigeneralinnovazione.it/online/ 
  3. http://www.immaginailfuturo.org/  
  4. http://www.romagnacreativedistrict.com; http://www.regione.lazio.it/europaimprese/creatividigitali/
  5. http://ec.europa.eu/culture/index_en.htm
  6. http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/portal/desktop/en/opportunities/h2020/topics/2104-reflective-6-2015.html
  7. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:394:0010:0018:it:PDF   
  8. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2008:141:0017:0020:it:PDF  
  9. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:348:0115:01:IT:HTML  
  10. http://www.create2009.europa.eu/  
  11. http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/information_society/strategies/si0016_it.htm  
  12. http://www.italia150.it/
  13. http://www.expo2015.org/
  14. http://ec.europa.eu/culture/creative-europe/  
  15. The cultural and creative sectors to seize the opportunities of the ‘digital age’ [T.d.A.]
  16. http://www.lets-create.eu/
  17. http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020  
  18. http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture/index_en.htm  
  19. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_SPEECH-12-30_en.htm?locale=en  
  20. ... opportunities for the creative sector in the online age [...] this sector offers our rich cultural heritage a proud platform; our people an opportunity for self-expression; our economy a much-needed boost. And the digital era brings vast opportunities: I want the creative sector to make the most out of them. [T.d.A.]
  21. http://ec.europa.eu/culture/our-policy-development/documents/communication-sept2012.pdf  
  22. Innovation is increasingly driven by non-technological factors such as creativity, design and new organisational processes or business models. [T.d.A.]
  23. The cultural and creative sectors are faced with a rapidly changing environment [...] major challenges are brought about by globalisation and the digital shift, but the necessary adaptations are yet to be promoted to allow these sectors to realise their full potential. [T.d.A.]
  24. http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/ict/docs/ict-wp2013-10-7-2013-with-cover-issn.pdf
  25. Greater creativity stimulated through technologies and tools to capture, produce, search and exchange professional and user generated immersive and interactive digital media content. [T.d.A.]
  26. One goal is to create a vibrant creative technology ecosystem and increase the innova-tion capacity of European industries and enterprises by providing them with better tools, capabilities and foresight. A further goal is to enhance, develop and encourage creativity as an essential 21st century skill in professional contexts. [T.d.A.]
  27. http://hubmiur.pubblica.istruzione.it/web/ricerca/smart-cities-and-communities-and-social-innovation
  28. http://www.expo2015.org/area-stampa/comunicati-stampa/changemakers-expo-milano-2015-ecco-la-carica-dei-1500-talenti
  29. http://ec.europa.eu/youth/news/20121220_urbanyouth_en.htm
  30. http://www.torinowireless.it/approvato_dal_miur_il_cluster_sulle_tecnologie_per_le_smart_communities.php  
  31. http://www.interno.gov.it/mininterno/export/sites/default/it/temi/enti/sottotema004.html
  32. http://www.potenzasmart.it/; http://www.udinesmart.it/  
  33. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m3FFMynT8HY
  34. http://www.mifav.uniroma2.it/inevent/events/scl_icalt2013/index.php?s=162&a=291; http://www.ckbg.org/tag/smart-city/
  35. http://www.carloratti.com/project/ciudad-creativa-digital/
  36. http://www.wipo.int/ip-development/en/creative_industry/bibliography.html  
  37. http://portal.unesco.org/culture/es/files/30297/11942616973cultural_stat_EN.pdf/cultural_stat_EN.pdf
  38. http://unctad.org/es/Docs/ditctab20103_en.pdf
  39. http://ec.europa.eu/culture/documents/greenpaper_creative_industries_it.pdf
  40. http://ec.europa.eu/culture/our-policy-development/documents/icc-platform-info.pdf
  41. http://www.creativemetropoles.eu/  
  42. http://www.thefuntheory.com/; anche http://www.bmwguggenheimlab.org/what-is-the-lab;  www.citroencreativeawards.com
  43. Vol 20, settembre 2009.
  44. http://futuremedialab.creativemediadays.be/
  45. http://research.animationsinstitut.de/119.0.html
  46. http://www.cotec.it/il-ruolo-del-capitale-umano-nel-settore-ict/
  47. http://ict.usc.edu/about/
  48. http://www.arts.ac.uk/
  49. http://www.metropolia.fi/en/degree-programmes/culture-creative-industries/
  50. know-how in creativity and art based development; creative contents into products and distributing them; predictive, working life and city district-based thinking; customer- and user-oriented thinking; multiprofessional creative thinking.
  51. http://www.ioct.dmu.ac.uk/
  52. http://creativetechnology.salford.ac.uk/index.html  
  53. http://www.maind.supsi.ch/
  54. http://milano.unicatt.it/master/comunicazione-per-le-industrie-creative-presentazione-2012-2013
  55. http://www.mediaartscultures.eu/wp/programme-2/
  56. La ricerca è stata condotta congiuntamente dagli autori di questo libro su incarico del Polo della Creatività Digitale e della Multimedialità della Regione Piemonte, nell’ambito delle sue attività di animazione e promozione sul territorio. La ricerca è stata affidata formalmente nel 2012 al CIRMA – Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca su Multimedia e Audiovisivo dell’Università di Torino, di cui Giulio Lughi era allora direttore, e aveva il compito di monitorare soggetti regionali operanti nel campo della Creatività Digitale e del Multimedia, nonché di proporre delle Linee Guida da utilizzare sia per la stesura dei progetti da parte delle imprese, sia come griglia di valutazione riguardo ai progetti da parte del board interno.
  57. Basti ricordare la figura di Leonardo Chiariglione, ingegnere piemontese a suo tempo membro del CSELT di Torino, poi Telecom Italia LAB, che a partire dal 1988 ha fondato e organizzato il gruppo internazionale di ricerca MPEG (di cui è ad oggi Presidente) dove sono stati elaborati gli omonimi formati di compressione audio-video che hanno cambiato il volto del mercato e della fruizione della musica e dell’immagine in movimento.
  58. http://www.i3p.it/; http://www.treatabit.com/
  59. http://www.trovarsinrete.org/ScritturaMutante.htm
  60. http://www.vrmmp.it/index.htm  
  61. http://www.regione.piemonte.it/innovazione/poli-di-innovazione.html  
  62. http://www.torinowireless.it/creativita_digitale_e_multimedialita_parte_la_gestione_del_polo_ict.php  
  63. http://www.lets-create.eu/downloads.html
  64. http://www.css-ebla.it/css/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=26%3Aatmosfera-creativa&catid=1%3Alatest-projects&Itemid=50&lang=it
  65. http://www.fabermeeting.it/
  66. http://www.compagniadisanpaolo.it/contenuto.php?sezioneID=14&ID=1727
  67. http://www.alcotra-innovazione.eu/newseventi/attivita22to3.shtml
  68. http://i4school.csp.it/
  69. http://www.regione.piemonte.it/innovazione/notizie/por-fesr-2007-2013-progetti-innovativi-di-creativit-digitale-ideati-da-giovani.html  
  70. http://viewconference.it/
  71. http://www.torinonordovest.it/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/CreativitaDigitaleSviluppoLocale_Report_ott.2014.pdf

 

7. REINCANTO TECNOLOGICO

  1. http://www.repubblica.it/online/internet/maffes/maffes/maffes.html
  2. http://venicesessions.it/